MODULAR HOUSING AS A SOLUTION TO THE HOUSING SHORTAGE
The role of innovation in the economy. Innovation as a fact of economic development of the country. Historically, two completely different and yet inseparable impulses have shaped modern business: the desire for more efficient production and for competitive advantages through innovation. Production takes place in enterprises whose survival depends on the supply of goods and services available from a number of competing suppliers. In order to develop under such conditions, enterprises must make efforts, for example, to reduce prices (by avoiding losses and increasing productivity), or create new commercial offers (through the introduction of innovations). One of the most common and common sense assumptions about innovation is that it is profitable, and the main driving force behind innovation is the economic benefits that innovation brings. While innovation is a crucial factor in competition among firms, it is not simply an economic phenomenon for them. In fact, innovation is the result of actions and decisions that differ from those recognized as economic and rational. In fact, the benefits of innovation are highly uncertain; therefore, innovation is more like a lottery than a conventional investment in expanding an existing business. According to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank, 2002) social and economic progress is achieved mainly through the development and application of knowledge. Observing construction sites around the world, it seems that everyday construction practices are rooted in tradition, depend on cheap and unskilled labor, and provide poor working conditions with no prospect of career advancement. This is what the construction industry in poor developing countries looks like and is undoubtedly most pronounced. But statements have also been made that in rich, industrialized countries the construction sector tends to remain stagnant and insular, reflecting self-interest instead of the interests of an emerging knowledge-based society. The question of “what’s wrong with construction” comes up in both construction sector research and the political environment, and one idea is particularly acute in the debate. It is that those involved in the construction industry need to recognize the challenges of today, embrace innovation, and realize that novelty and change are the only way for companies to thrive.
The volumetric module construction is one of the types of prefabricated construction, based on the use of prefabricated block-modules in the erection of low-rise buildings of various purposes. The process of erection of a volumetric-modular house is as follows. Separate enlarged block-modules of the house are made of assembly units at the specialized factory. In general, the technological process of manufacturing modules looks like this: the base are installed walls and partitions, and on top – the folding slab. The finished set (with a roof) includes all internal utility systems (including low-current), all interior (and partially exterior) finishing and built-in furniture (for example, kitchen).
Then, the bulk modules of the building are transported to the construction site, where the modules are joined and assembled on the prefabricated foundation. The parts of the house are connected by bolts. At the last stage, the house is connected to the external engineering networks and the landscaping of the adjacent territory.
The block module structure includes:
internal partitions of the module.
In addition to reducing the construction time and cost-effectiveness of such construction is also an environmental component. High environmental industrial modular house-building is achieved through the use of expanded clay lightweight concrete and the “dirty” works directly in the factory shop. Quality indicators of heat and noise insulation properties (57 decibels, compared to 52 decibels, provided by the SNIP state standards) are achieved due to the double walls, floors and ceilings. By the way, this technology is now actively used in Germany for low-rise buildings and in Singapore for 30-40-story residential and commercial skyscrapers.